Ceta Agreement Analysis
CETA must be concluded as a joint agreement; On the other hand, the Commission`s hopes of signing NAFTA in October did not receive as much rejection and criticism as CETA, but there were critical voices about the lack of transparency in some areas regarding the investment chapter of the treaty (Barnes, 2001). Given that the North American free trade agreement was generally intended and committed to positive effects to the sub-treaty countries, most of the purpose of the negotiations was not really ignored by the public. Nevertheless, some non-governmental organizations, such as environmental groups and trade unions, expressed concern about the agreement, but had the opportunity to express their views with the help of members of Congress (Lange 1998, p. 225-226). This article summarizes the liberal trade achievements of the recent economic and trade agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union (EU), considered Canada`s most panopic international trade and investment agreement in two decades. since the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 and Canada`s accession to the WTO agreements (WTO) in 1995 (1). European Union and Canada. The analysis includes investment protection provisions, including the ics system (judicial investment system), public procurement, environmental and health issues, trade in services and the regulatory cooperation forum. In general, EU Member States are still very divided on CETA`s investments, fuelled by criticism from non-governmental organisations, think tanks, economic institutions, foundations and consumer organisations.
That is why the European Commission has said it will delay the implementation of the CETA investment chapter until all EU Member States have completed their national ratification process. This will give the European Commission a longer period of time to deepen consultations with Canada on the modern ISDS system, including a guarantee for small and medium-sized enterprises, arbitration tribunals and the new appeals system, as well as the selection of judges (EC, 2018c). However, it would be wise to consider the Council of the Court of Justice in order to avoid errors that might arise after the application of CETA. This negotiation phase of the investment chapter could last as long as each European Member State ratifies the treaty. In the meantime, renegotiation agreements or changes to certain investment chapters may be possible until the final version. During the CETA negotiations, the European Commission and the Canadian government were criticized for holding their meetings in secret. Since the beginning of the negotiations in 2009, no reliable and tangible information on the free trade agreement has been disclosed to the public, with the exception of certain details such as tariff reduction, intellectual property protection, including geographical indications, and the ability for European companies to access public procurement in Canada (Salzburger Nachrichten , 2014aa 2), (EC, 2018th). This opaque process continued until ARD infiltrated the entire consolidated text (approximately 519 pages) of the CETA Treaty (ARD, 2018) in August 2014. Subsequently, the European Commission published the final version of CETA in September 2014, following the negotiations (EC, 2018f).